Swell & Void Percentage,
Load FactorS

Definitions:

Swell: The percentage of original volume that a material increases when it is removed from its bank state and becomes “loose.” When excavated, the material breaks up into different size particles that do not fit together, creating voids that reduce the weight per volume. For example, to hold the same weight of one cubic meter/yard of material, it takes 30 percent more volume (1.3 times) after excavation if the swell is 30 percent.

Load Factor: The ratio of the loose volume to the bank volume. Since most contracts are paid in bank volume, load factors are useful for converting the loose volume moved into a bank volume measurement.

SWELL PERCENT

VOID PERCENT

LOAD FACTOR

5 4.8 0.952
10 9.1 0.909
15 13.0 0.870
20 16.7 0.833
25 20.0 0.800
30 23.1 0.769
35 25.9 0.741
40 28.6 0.714
45 31.0 0.690
50 33.3 0.667
55 35.5 0.645
60 37.5 0.625
65 39.4 0.606
70 41.2 0.588

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